This issue may occur when Servlet Listener classes are not available in classpath or encountered some runtime error while instantiating the Listners. But unfortunately Tomcat doesn't log any additional information regarding the root cause of the issue by default.
SEVERE: One or more listeners failed to start. Full details will be found in the appropriate container log file
We can force Tomcat to log the extra information about the root cause of error by placing logging.properties in /WEB-INF/classes directory as shown below and restart Tomcat.